# 3. Running computations¶

In this section we’ll be learning how to run external codes with AiiDA through calculation plugins.

We will use the Quantum ESPRESSO package to launch a simple density functional theory calculation of a silicon crystal using the PBE exchange-correlation functional and check its results. In doing so, we will intentionally introduce some bogus input parameters in order to show how to ‘manually’ debug problems when encountering errors. Workflows, which you’ll see later in this tutorial, can help you avoid these issues systematically.

Note that besides the aiida-quantumespresso plugin, AiiDA comes with plugins for many other codes, all of which are listed in the AiiDA plugin registry.

## 3.1. Computer setup¶

In a production environment, AiiDA would typically be running on your work station or laptop, while launching calculations on remote high-performance compute resources that you have SSH access to. For this reason AiiDA has the concept of a Computer to run calculations on.

To keep things simple, Quantum ESPRESSO (together with several other ab initio codes) has been installed directly in your virtual machine, and you are going to launch your first calculations on the same computer where AiiDA is installed. Nevertheless, even if it is the same computer, we need to create a new Computer instance in AiiDA in order to launch calculations on it:

$verdi computer setup --config computer.yml where computer.yml is a configuration file in the YAML format that you can download here. This is its content: --- description: "localhost" label: "localhost" hostname: "localhost" transport: local scheduler: "direct" work_dir: "/home/max/.aiida_run" mpirun_command: "mpirun -np {tot_num_mpiprocs}" mpiprocs_per_machine: "2" shebang: "#!/bin/bash" prepend_text: " " append_text: " " Note When used without the --config option, verdi computer setup will prompt you for the required information, just like you have seen when setting up a profile. The configuration file should work for the virtual machine that comes with this tutorial but may need to be adapted when you are running AiiDA in a different environment, as explained in the aiida online documentation. The computer setup step informs AiiDA of the existence of the computer and of its basic settings, like the scheduler installed on it. Before being able to use the computer, you also need to provide AiiDA with information on how to access the Computer. For remote computers with ssh transport, this would involve e.g. an SSH key, the username on the remote computer, the port to connect to, etc. For local computers, this is just a “formality” (press enter to confirm the default cooldown time, that is the time between consecutive opening of a connection - for a local computer this can be safely set to zero, while when connecting via SSH it is better to leave a time of a few seconds, to avoid overloading of the remote computer):$ verdi computer configure local localhost

Note

For remote computers with ssh transport, use verdi computer configure ssh instead of verdi computer configure local.

Your localhost computer should now show up in

$verdi computer list Note AiiDA export archives like the one we imported in the very beginning can also contain computers set up by other AiiDA users (without the private configuration information). Use verdi computer list -a to list both configured and unconfigured computers. Before proceeding, test that it works:$ verdi computer test localhost

## 3.2. Code setup¶

Now that we have our localhost set up, let’s configure the Code, namely the pw.x executable. As with the computer, we have prepared a configuration file for you to download. This is its content:

---
label: "qe-6.5-pw"
description: "quantum_espresso v6.5"
input_plugin: "quantumespresso.pw"
on_computer: true
remote_abs_path: "/usr/local/bin/pw.x"
computer: "localhost"
prepend_text: "ulimit -s unlimited"
append_text: " "

Once you have the configuration file in your local working environment, set up the code:

$verdi code setup --config code.yml Try to understand the various parameters in the YAML file. In particular, we note that this code needs the quantumespresso.pw plugin, and we are specifying the fact that the code is already present on the computer, the absolute path to this code, the name of the AiiDA computer (localhost) on which it is, and some text to prepend before each execution (in this case ulimit -s unlimited, but in other cases it could e.g. be a module load). Warning The configuration should work for the virtual machine that comes with this tutorial. If you are following this tutorial in a different environment, you will need to install Quantum ESPRESSO and adapt the configuration to your needs, as explained in the aiida online documentation. Similar to the computers, you can list all the configured codes with:$ verdi code list

Verify that it now contains a code named qe-6.5-pw that we just configured. You can always check the configuration details of an existing code using:

$verdi code show qe-6.5-pw Note The generic profile has already a number of other codes configured. See verdi -p generic code list. In order to also show codes created by other users (e.g. from imported archives), use verdi code list -A. ## 3.3. The AiiDA daemon¶ First of all, check that the AiiDA daemon is actually running. The AiiDA daemon is a program that • runs continuously in the background • waits for new calculations to be submitted • transfers the inputs of new calculations to your compute resource • checks the status of your calculation on the compute resource, and • retrieves the results from the compute resource Check the status of the daemon process by typing in the terminal:$ verdi daemon status

If the daemon is running, the output should look like

Profile: quicksetup
Daemon is running as PID 2050 since 2019-04-30 12:37:12
Active workers [1]:
PID    MEM %    CPU %  started
-----  -------  -------  -------------------
2055    2.147        0  2019-04-30 12:37:12
Use verdi daemon [incr | decr] [num] to increase / decrease the amount of workers

If this is not the case, type in the terminal

$verdi daemon start to start the daemon. ## 3.4. Creating and launching calculations¶ In the following, we’ll be working in the verdi shell. As you go along, feel free to keep track of your commands by copying them into a python script test_pw.py. Note The verdi shell imports a number of AiiDA internals so that you as the user don’t have to. You can also make those available to a python script, by running it using$ verdi run <scriptname>

Every calculation sent to a cluster is linked to a code, which describes the executable file as we saw earlier. We also saw how to list all codes available using

$verdi code list In this part of the tutorial we are interested in running the pw.x executable of Quantum ESPRESSO, i.e. in codes for the quantumespresso.pw plugin. If you have many codes for different executables, you can filter only those using a specific plugin with the command:$ verdi code list -P quantumespresso.pw

Pick the correct codename (qe-6.5-pw@localhost if you followed the instructions earlier) and load it in the verdi shell:

Note

load_code returns an object of type Code, which is the general AiiDA class for describing simulation codes.

Let’s build the inputs for a new PwCalculation (defined by the quantumespresso.pw plugin) using a “builder”, a class provided by AiiDA that will help you out:

In [2]: builder = code.get_builder()

As the first step, assign a (short) label or a (long) description to your calculation, that you might find convenient in the future.

In [3]: builder.metadata.label = "PW test"
...: builder.metadata.description = "My first AiiDA calc with Quantum ESPRESSO on Si"

This information will be saved in the database for later queries or inspection. Note that you can press TAB after writing builder. to see all inputs available for this calculation. In order to figure out which data type is expected for a particular input, such as builder.structure, and whether the input is optional or required, use builder.structure?.

Now, specify the number of machines (a.k.a. cluster nodes) you are going to run on and the maximum time allowed for the calculation. The general options grouped under builder.metadata.options are independent of the code or plugin, and will be passed to the scheduler that handles the queue on your compute resource.

In [4]: builder.metadata.options.resources = {'num_machines': 1}
...: builder.metadata.options.max_wallclock_seconds = 30 * 60

Again, to see the list of available options, type builder.metadata.options. and hit the TAB button.

### 3.4.1. Preparation of inputs¶

A Quantum ESPRESSO calculation needs a number of inputs:

1. Pseudopotentials

2. a structure

3. a mesh in reciprocal space (k-points)

4. a number of input parameters

These are mirrored in the inputs of the aiida-quantumespresso plugin (see documentation). We’ll start with the structure, k-points, and pseudopotentials and leave the input parameters as the last thing to setup.

Exercise

Use what you learned in the basics section to load the structure and kpoints inputs for your calculation:

Note: If you just copy and paste code that you executed previously, this may result in duplication of information on your database. In fact, you can re-use an existing structure stored in your database 1. Use a combination of the bash command verdi data structure list and the python function load_node() to get an object representing the structure created earlier.

### 3.4.2. Attaching the input information to the calculation¶

Once you’ve created a structure node and a kpoints node, attach it to the calculation:

In [5]: builder.structure = structure
...: builder.kpoints = kpoints

Note

The builder accepts both stored and unstored data nodes. AiiDA will take care of storing the unstored nodes upon submission. If you decide not to submit, nothing will be stored in the database.

PWscf also needs information on the pseudopotentials, in the form of a dictionary, where keys are the names of the elements and the values are the corresponding UpfData objects containing the information on the pseudopotential. However, instead of creating the dictionary by hand, we can use a helper function that picks the right pseudopotentials for our structure from a pseudopotential family. You can list the preconfigured families within the IPython shell using:

In [6]: !verdi data upf listfamilies

Pick the one you configured in the basics hands on (the SSSP family) and link the correct pseudopotentials to the calculation using the command:

In [7]: from aiida.orm.nodes.data.upf import get_pseudos_from_structure
...: builder.pseudos = get_pseudos_from_structure(structure, '<PSEUDO_FAMILY_NAME>')

Print the content of the pseudos namespace with print(builder.pseudos) to see what the helper function created.

### 3.4.3. Preparing and debugging input parameters¶

Finally, we need to specify a number of input parameters (i.e. plane wave cutoffs, convergence thresholds, etc.) to launch the Quantum ESPRESSO calculation. The structure of the parameter dictionary closely follows the structure of the PWscf input file.

Since these are often the parameters to tune in a calculation, let’s introduce a few mistakes intentionally and use this part of the tutorial to learn how to debug problems.

Define a set of input parameters for Quantum ESPRESSO, preparing a dictionary of the form:

In [8]: parameters_dict = {
...:     'CONTROL': {
...:         'calculation': 'scf',
...:     },
...:     'SYSTEM': {
...:         'ecutwfc': 30.,
...:         'ecutrho': 200.,
...:         'mickeymouse': 240.,
...:     },
...:     'ELECTRONS': {
...:         'conv_thr': 1.e-14,
...:         'electron_maxstep': 3,
...:     },
...: }

This dictionary is almost a valid input for the Quantum ESPRESSO plugin, except for an invalid key mickeymouse. When Quantum ESPRESSO receives an unrecognized key, it will stop. By default, the AiiDA plugin will not validate your input and simply pass it on to the code.

We have also introduced a combination of a very high accuracy ('conv_thr': 1.e-14) coupled with a very low maximum number of self consistent iterations ('electron_maxstep': 3). This means that even if we eliminate the invalid key, the calculation will not converge and will not be successful, despite there not being any other mistake in the parameters dictionary.

Let’s wrap the parameters_dict python dictionary in an AiiDA Dict node, and set it as the input of name parameters. We’ll see what happens.

In [9]: builder.parameters = Dict(dict=parameters_dict)

### 3.4.4. Simulate submission¶

At this stage, you have created in memory (it’s not yet stored in the database) the input of the graph shown below. The outputs will be created by the daemon later on.

In order to check which input files AiiDA creates, we can perform a dry run of the submission process. Let’s tell the builder that we want a dry run and that we don’t want to store the provenance of the dry run:

It’s time to run:

In [11]: from aiida.engine import run
...: run(builder)

Note

Instead of using the builder, you can also simply pass the calculation class as the first argument, followed by the inputs as keyword arguments, e.g.:

run(PwCalculation, structure=structure, pseudos={'Si': pseudo_node}, ....)

The builder is simply a convenience wrapper providing tab-completion in the shell and automatic help strings.

This creates a folder of the form submit_test/[date]-0000[x] in the current directory. Open a second terminal and:

• open the input file aiida.in within this folder

• compare it to input data nodes you created earlier

• verify that the pseudo folder contains the needed pseudopotentials

• have a look at the submission script _aiidasubmit.sh

Note

The files created by a dry run are only intended for inspection and cannot be used to correct the inputs of your calculation.

### 3.4.5. Submitting the calculation¶

Up to now we’ve just been playing around and our calculation has been kept in memory and not in the database. Now that we have inspected the input files and convinced ourselves that Quantum ESPRESSO will have all the information it needs to perform the calculation, we will submit the calculation properly. Doing so will make sure that all inputs are stored in the database, will run and store the calculation and link the outputs to it.

Let’s revert the following values in our builder to their defaults:

And then rely on the submit machinery of AiiDA,

In [13]: from aiida.engine import submit
...: calculation = submit(builder)

As soon as you have executed these lines, the calculation variable contains a PwCalculation instance, already submitted to the daemon.

Note

You may have noticed that we used submit here instead of run. The difference is that submit will hands over the calculation to the daemon running in the background, while run will execute all tasks in the current shell.

All processes in AiiDA (you will soon get to know more) can be “launched” using one of available functions:

• run

• run_get_node

• run_get_pk

• submit

which are explained in more detail in the online documentation.

The calculation is now stored in the database and was assigned a “database primary key” or pk (calculation.pk) as well as a UUID (calculation.uuid). See the previous section for more details on these identifiers.

To preserve the integrity of the data provenance, AiiDA will prevent you from changing the core content (“attributes”) of a stored node. There is an “extras” section though, which is writable after storage, to allow you to set additional information, e.g. as a way of labelling nodes and providing information for querying.

For example, let’s add an extra attribute called element, with value Si:

In [14]: calculation.set_extra("element", "Si")

In the mean time, after you submitted your calculation, the daemon picked it up and started to: generate the input files, submit the calculation to the queue, wait for it to run and finish, retrieve the output files, parse them, store them in the database and set the state of the calculation to Finished.

Note

If the daemon is not running, the calculation will remain in the NEW state until you start the daemon.

### 3.4.6. Checking the status of the calculation¶

You can check the calculation status from the command line in your second terminal:

$verdi process list If you don’t see any calculation in the output, the calculation you submitted has already finished. Note Since you are running your DFT calculation directly on the VM, verdi commands can be a bit slow until the calculation finishes. By default, the command only prints calculations that are still active 2. Let’s also list your finished calculations (and limit those only to the one created in the past day):$ verdi process list -a -p1

as explained in the first section.

Similar to the dry run, we can also inspect the input files of the actual calculation:

$verdi calcjob inputls <pk_number> -c for the pk_number of your calculation. This will show the contents of the input directory (-c prints directories in color). Check the content of input files with$ verdi calcjob inputcat <pk_number> | less

## 3.5. Troubleshooting¶

Your calculation should end up in a finished state, but with some error: this is represented by a non-zero error code in brackets near the “Finished” status of the State:

$verdi process list -a -p1 PK Created Process label Process State Process status ---- --------- --------------- ---------------- ---------------- 2060 5m ago PwCalculation ⏹ Finished [305] ... # Anything but [0] after the Finished state signals a failure This was expected, since we used an invalid key in the input parameters. Situations like this happen in real life, so AiiDA provides tools to trace back to the source of the problem and correct it. In general for any calculation (both successful and failed) you can get a more detailed summary by running:$ verdi process show <pk_number>
Property     Value
-----------  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
type         PwCalculation
state        Finished [305] Both the stdout and XML output files could not be read or parsed.
pk           2060
uuid         95a58902-9c2a-47a7-b858-a058a2ea76e5
label        PW test
description  My first AiiDA calc with Quantum ESPRESSO on Si
ctime        2020-06-30 07:16:45.987116+00:00
mtime        2020-06-30 07:19:55.964423+00:00
computer     [2] localhost

Inputs      PK    Type
----------  ----  -------------
pseudos
Si      2043  UpfData
code        2056  Code
kpoints     2058  KpointsData
parameters  2059  Dict
structure   2057  StructureData

Outputs              PK  Type
-----------------  ----  --------------
output_parameters  2064  Dict
output_trajectory  2063  TrajectoryData
remote_folder      2061  RemoteData
retrieved          2062  FolderData

Log messages
---------------------------------------------
There are 4 log messages for this calculation
Run 'verdi process report 2060' to see them

The last part of the output alerts you to the fact that there are some log messages waiting for you, if you run verdi process report <pk>.

If you read the report, you will see that it says that the output files could not be parsed. In this case you can also try inspecting directly the output file of PWscf.

$verdi calcjob outputcat <pk_number> | less You will see an error message complaining about the mickeymouse line in the input. Let’s now correct our input parameters dictionary by leaving out the invalid key and see if our calculation succeeds: In [15]: parameters_dict = { ...: "CONTROL": { ...: "calculation": "scf", ...: }, ...: "SYSTEM": { ...: "ecutwfc": 30., ...: "ecutrho": 200., ...: }, ...: "ELECTRONS": { ...: "conv_thr": 1.e-14, ...: 'electron_maxstep': 3, ...: } ...: } ...: builder.parameters = Dict(dict=parameters_dict) ...: calculation = submit(builder) (Note: If you have been using the separate script approach, modify the script to remove the faulty input and run it again). Use verdi process list -a -p1 to verify that the error code is different now. You can check again the outputs and the reports with the tools explained in this section and try to fix it yourself before going on to the next. ### 3.5.1. Restarting calculations¶ It turns out that your last calculation did not converge because we stopped the self-consistency iteration cycle before it converged (3). In this simple case, you could just re-run the calculation from scratch with a sufficient number of iterations, but for expensive calculations (including a structural relaxation or molecular dynamics), you would like instead to restart your calculation from the previous one to save time. For this purpose, CalcJobNode provides the get_builder_restart method. Just like the get_builder method of the Code or of the Process class, this creates an instance of the ProcessBuilder, but with all inputs already pre-populated from those of the “parent” node. Let us load the node of the calculation job that we want to restart in a verdi shell and create a new builder from it: In [1]: failed_calculation = load_node(<PK>) ...: restart_builder = failed_calculation.get_builder_restart() Type restart_builder and press Enter to verify that all inputs have already been set to those that were used for the original calculation. Let’s give the new calculation some more steps in the SCF cycle in order to let it converge: In [2]: parameters = restart_builder.parameters.get_dict() ...: parameters['ELECTRONS']['electron_maxstep'] = 80 The aiida-quantumespresso plugin supports restarting a calculation by setting the corresponding restart_mode and attaching the remote working directory of the previous calculations as the parent_folder input 3: In [3]: parameters['CONTROL']['restart_mode'] = 'restart' ...: restart_builder.parent_folder = failed_calculation.outputs.remote_folder ...: restart_builder.parameters = Dict(dict=parameters) Note that we’ve created a new Dict node for the modifed parameters since the original input is stored in the database and immutable. Finally, let’s label this calculation as a restarted one and submit the new calculation: In [4]: from aiida.engine import submit ...: restart_builder.metadata.label = 'Restart from PwCalculation<{}>'.format(failed_calculation.pk) ...: calculation = submit(restart_builder) Inspect the restarted calculation to verify that, this time, it completes successfully. You should see a “finished” status with exit code zero when running verdi process list -a -p1. ## 3.6. Calculation results¶ The results of a calculation can be accessed directly from the calculation node using the following:$ verdi calcjob res <IDENTIFIER>

which will print the output dictionary of the ‘scalar’ results parsed by AiiDA at the end of the calculation. Note that this is actually a shortcut for:

$verdi data dict show <IDENTIFIER> where IDENTIFIER refers to the Dict node attached as an output of the calculation node, with link name output_parameters. By looking at the output of the command, what is the total energy (energy) of the calculation you have run? What are its units? Similarly to what you did for the calculation inputs, you can access the output files via the commands:$ verdi calcjob outputls <IDENTIFIER>

and

\$ verdi calcjob outputcat <IDENTIFIER>

Use the latter to verify that the energy that you have found in the last step has been extracted correctly from the output file.

Tip

Filter the lines containing the string ‘energy’, e.g. using grep, to isolate the relevant lines.

The results of calculations are stored in two ways: Dict objects are stored in the database, which makes querying them very convenient, whereas ArrayData objects are stored on the disk. The choice of what to store in Dict and ArrayData nodes is made by the parser of pw.x implemented in the aiida-quantumespresso plugin.

The TrajectoryData output node is a type of ArrayData. Once more, use the command verdi data array show <IDENTIFIER> to determine the energy obtained from calculation you ran. This time you will need to use the identifier of the output TrajectoryData of the calculation, with link name output_trajectory. As you might have realized, the difference now is that the whole series of values of the energy calculated after each ionic step are stored. Of course, as we simply ran an scf calculation, there is only one value here, but as an exercise, you can restart the calculation with:

parameters['CONTROL']['calculation'] = 'vc-relax'

And once again check the TrajectoryData output node with link name output_trajectory.

The output of calculation jobs can also be obtained via the verdi shell. For example, note down the PK of the calculation so that you can load it in the verdi shell and check the total energy with the commands:

Then get the energy of the calculation with the command:

In [2]: calculation.res.energy
Out[2]: -308.31214469484

You can also type

In [3]: calculation.res.

and then press TAB to see all the available results of the calculation.

Besides writing input files, running the software for you, storing the output files, and connecting it all together in your provenance graph, many AiiDA plugins will parse the output of your code and make output values of interest available through an output dictionary node (as depicted in the graph above). In the case of the aiida-quantumespresso plugin this output node is available at calculation.outputs.output_parameters and you can access all the available attributes (not only the energy) using:

In [4]: calculation.outputs.output_parameters.attributes

While the name of this output dictionary node can be chosen by the plugin, AiiDA provides the “results” shortcut calculation.res that plugin developers can use to provide what they consider the result of the calculation (so, in this case, calculation.res.energy is just a shortcut to calculation.outputs.output_parameters.attributes['energy']).

Footnotes

1

In order to avoid duplication of KpointsData, you would first need to learn how to query the database, therefore we will ignore this issue for now.

2

A process is considered active if it is either Created, Running or Waiting. If a process is no longer active, but terminated, it will have a state Finished, Killed or Excepted.

3

The parent_folder input for reusing the remote working folder of a previous calculation is specific to the aiida-quantumespresso plugin, but similar patterns are used in other plugins. The PwCalculation CalcJob plugin will copy the outdir of the parent simulation into the appropriate location, where Quantum ESPRESSO’s pw.x executable looks for wavefunctions, charge densities, etc. This allows to keep the checkpoint files (which may be large) on the remote machine, while still recording the provenance of the new calculation in the AiiDA graph as: parent_calculation --> remote_folder --> restart_calculation.